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The subject of logic has been talked about for over three thousand years without any major advances happening that would have made the subject easy for anyone to use.
”Logic” means the subject of reasoning, which is thinking about facts and ideas and making the correct decisions from them.
Simply, logic is the study of how ideas or facts are combined in a way that makes sense to explain things as well as the ability to do this. Over the centuries there have been people who have called logic a science. That, however, does not make sense because an actual science is an organized, precise and complete study of a subject that is done in order to prove or disprove existing ideas, discover new truths and develop new ideas by applying the information in ways that are agreed upon to see what works.
So, if logic really was a ”science,” people would be able to think. But people can’t think logically.
Even the word ”logic” is completely unfriendly and can make a person fearful to come near it, thinking it was beyond their ability to understand. If you were to read a book on logic, you would probably become quite confused and frustrated trying to figure it out and, actually, not even learn how to think—which is what logic is supposed to help you do.
Yet logic or the ability to reason is very important to anyone in charge of organizing or managing a group or company. If you cannot think clearly, you will not be able to reach the conclusions necessary to make correct decisions.
Many offices of a government, entire governments, societies and groups have taken advantage of people’s lack of understanding of logic and have for a very long time. That’s because when people cannot think clearly or reason and figure things out for themselves, they can be easily controlled by telling them falsehoods and gaining support for very bad or unpleasant causes (aims of a group or movement).
So logic has not been a subject supported but actually quite the opposite. The understanding of logic has been suppressed.
Even schools in America and Europe have tried to convince students they should study mathematics as ”that is the way they think.” And, of course, people don’t think that way.
The administrator, the manager, the artisan (skilled worker who makes things by hand) and the clerk each have a use for logic that is very important and necessary. If they cannot reason, they can make very costly and time consuming mistakes and can cause the entire organization to go into complete confusion and ruin.
What each person on management and work lines usually use and deal with are data (information) and situations (broad general
scenes on which a body of current data exists). Unless they can observe any difficulties or problems in their area and think their way through the information, they can reach wrong conclusions and take incorrect actions. This will only make things worse.
Today, Man thinks mathematics can serve him for logic yet most of his situations worsen because of this
misplaced confidence (belief in something). The reason it’s misplaced is because human problems are so complex with so many different factors (conditions or circumstances) involved that it makes mathematics completely inadequate. In other words, it’s not enough.
If people on management and work lines do not know logic, an organization can lose direction and stability and so need a very high level of intelligence, skill and ability to hold it together and keep it running. Unfortunately, that level of intelligence, skill and ability is not always easily available to any group or organization, except at a very high cost by hiring an expert. But even then it is not a guarantee that things will be improved in the organization.
Throughout history there have been entire civilizations die away because logic has not been known and used by its rulers, leaders and people.
So this is a very important subject.
Scientology contains a way to make logic available to you so that you can understand and use it. This is a major breakthrough of taking a very difficult and almost impossible subject and making it simple. Now the correct answers to situations can be found far more often and you can be more effective in your actions so that you can survive and expand. This also applies to any group, organization or a civilization.
The breakthrough is a simple one:
BY ESTABLISHING (making something clear or recognized) THE WAYS IN WHICH THINGS BECOME ILLOGICAL, ONE CAN THEN ESTABLISH WHAT IS LOGIC.
In other words, if one has an understanding of what makes things illogical or irrational (crazy) it is then possible to think of what makes things logical.
There are exact ways, when people pass on information or make a situation known to others, for it to become illogical. These are the things which cause you to have an incorrect idea of a situation. Each different way is called an
outpoint, which is any one datum (a single piece of information, fact) that is offered as true that is actually illogical. Each one of these is described below with examples to make them very clear.
Anything omitted, meaning it is left out and not mentioned or not present, is an outpoint.
This can be an omitted person, an object, energy, space, time, form, a sequence or even an omitted scene (the place or circumstances where something happens or should happen). Anything that
can be omitted that should be there is an outpoint.
For example, if you left off the postal code on a card you were mailing to a family member, it may get lost in the postal service or take longer to arrive to the person. This is omitted data. Or take an example of you having a dinner party but a friend does not arrive who had promised to attend. That would be an omitted person and you would know something wasn’t right. You may wonder where that friend is or worry that maybe something happened to your friend.
Normally, this is the most overlooked outpoint as it isn’t there to directly attract attention.
Sequence is the order in which things happen or how something follows one thing after another in a logical order.
Any things, events, objects, sizes, in a wrong sequence is an outpoint.
For example, the series of numbers 3, 7, 1, 2, 4, 6, 5 is an altered sequence, or an incorrect sequence. The correct sequence is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
Doing step two of a sequence of actions before doing step one can be counted on to confuse any sequence of actions.
The very basic outness is to have no sequence at all. (An
outness is a condition or state of something being incorrect, wrong or missing.) This causes people to have fixed ideas, which are ideas or beliefs that the person has and will not change. For example, you can see this in someone who has very bad feelings about another group, religion or race just because they are different. This person is not able to look at each person and see them as they are, instead he holds on to his fixed idea and feels hate.
outness is also seen in a condition that is called disassociation, an insanity, where a person thinks things are different from what they are or thinks some things that have nothing to do with each other are the same. Such a person does not connect his thoughts and words to his actual surroundings. This type of person also jumps around and changes from subject to subject that have nothing to do with one another and in no obvious sequence. This type of person who disassociates is a very extreme example where things that have something to do with one another are not seen by this person, or the actual things that don’t have anything to do with one another are thought to have something similar.
”Sequence” means linear (in a line) travel either through space or time or both.
A sequence that should be one and isn’t is an outpoint (like the example of the correct sequence of numbers covered earlier).
A ”sequence” that isn’t but is thought to be one is an outpoint.
A cart-before-the-horse out of sequence is an outpoint.
Sometimes your most difficult job is explaining to someone what is about to happen to them if they continue doing what they are doing. They may not see it at all. This is a consequence (the effect of something). You try to tell this person ”If you saw off the limb you are sitting on you will of course fall,” but they don’t see it.
This is also true with the police. They try to make something obvious to people of what will happen if they do something wrong, but some people have no idea of sequence. And so the policeman’s threat of punishment works well on people who are already well-behaved, since they are more logical, but it doesn’t work on someone who steals or harms others since they are criminals because they can’t think in sequence—they are simply
fixated, meaning their attention is continuously on an idea or something. So you can say ”If you kill a man you will go to prison,” and this is an obvious sequence. But a murderer who is fixated on revenge (hurting or punishing another person because he did something bad to you) cannot think in sequence. A person has to think in sequences to have correct sequences.
Therefore, it is far more common than you would think to see altered sequences since persons who do not think in sequence do not see altered sequences in their own actions or areas.
If you practice
visualizing sequences and drill changing your attention, you can straighten this out and restore it as an ability.
A writer saw that movies and TV were fixating attention and not allowing people’s attention to move. An example of this is what became known as a
”couch potato,” a person who just sits and watches TV a lot and does not have an active life. And where parents raised their children watching a lot of TV in order to keep them occupied, you would likely end up with people that have a tendency (the way someone behaves as a result of his thinking) to alter sequences or not have any sequences at all. This is because they were fixated on TV so didn’t see or experience life around them as it really is.
When time should be noted and isn’t it would be an outpoint of ”dropped time.” It is a special case of an omitted datum.
For example, if you received an invitation to a dinner party but the date was not written in the invitation, you would not know when it was scheduled and could not attend.
Dropped time can also have a strangely ferocious (dangerous) effect that adds up to complete lunacy (insanity).
For example, a newspaper from 1814 and one from 1922 read one after another without any dates will produce confusion that is difficult to understand. The newspaper will just seem very odd, yet it’s hard to understand why.
A summary report of a situation that contains different events that happened over half a year, without saying so, can create a reaction that doesn’t seem correct for the current scene.
In the case of madmen the present is the dropped time, meaning they are stuck in the haunted past and don’t see the present. Just by telling a group of madmen to ”come up to present time” will produce a few ”cures” that seem like miracles. And getting the date of an ache or pain will often cause it to go away.
Time aberrations (illogicalities) are so strong that dropped time definitely qualifies as an outpoint.
When you hear two facts that are contrary (opposite), one is a falsehood or both are.
Propaganda (information or rumors that are often untrue) and other activities deal especially in falsehoods and cause a lot of disturbance and upset.
Whether it’s done on purpose or not, a falsehood is an outpoint. It may be a mistake or a carefully thought out falsehood or one said to protect something or someone, but it is still an outpoint.
A false anything fits in this category of outpoint. A false person, action, intention, anything that tries to be something other than what it actually is, is a falsehood and an outpoint.
Fiction (a made-up story) that does not pretend to be anything else is of course not a falsehood.
So the falsehood means ”other than it appears” or ”other than how something is presented.”
For example, if you went to a fast-food restaurant because you saw their posters promoting the new ”Jumbo Burger” but what you got didn’t look anything like their ads, that poster is a falsehood.
You do not have to think a lot about it and it’s not difficult for you to see that something that has been promoted or presented to be one thing but is actually something else, is an outpoint.
Whenever the importance of something is changed from its actual importance, made to look or seem better or it is made to seem worse, it is an outpoint.
In other words, something can be given an importance greater than it actually has, such as a jeweler increasing the price of a diamond ring three times higher than its actual value.
Also, something can be assigned an importance less than it has. For example, if you were having a house sale to get rid of some of the furniture you had earlier bought from a secondhand store, you may price some items very low if you didn’t know they were valuable antiques.
Or there are times a number of things of different importances can be given the same level of importance, like they are all the same.
As an example, someone who is fixed on the way he feels about people from a certain country may think “they” were all the same and he would not be able to see differences.
These are all outpoints, three versions of the same thing.
In order to work out what are the importances of anything, you need to know that it has everything to do with what something actually is in the real world.
When someone makes a mistake while trying to achieve something, such as thinking he is or should be going toward A and finds he is or should be going toward B, this is an outpoint.
This is commonly a mistake in correctly naming who or what a particular person or thing actually is. It is also purposes or goals that a person is wrong about. For example, ”If we tear down X we will be okay” often results in discovering that it should have been Y instead.
Here’s another example of picking the wrong target. This, or something similar, has happened in the past where someone decided to kill the king so that the people are free from being taxed, yet this still leaves the man who collected the tax alive to be used by the next government in power.
Injustice is the unfair or unjust action or treatment of someone and is usually an outpoint called wrong target.
An example of a wrong target that’s an injustice would be to arrest the people who take drugs, but award the drug company that makes and sells the drugs to people.
In the military, their plans and the methods of arranging and directing the troops, aircraft and ships for a battle are almost always an effort to get the enemy to go in the wrong direction or go after the wrong target so that the enemy is weakened and then defeated.
And the times when someone instantly dislikes or hates another person when they first meet is usually based on a mistake of thinking Bill is someone else named Pete. This is another example of wrong target.
A large amount of irrationality (not thinking or behaving in a sensible or reasonable way) is based on wrong targets, wrong sources, and wrong causes.
If you incorrectly tell a patient he has ulcers when he doesn’t have ulcers, he’s stuck with an outpoint that slows or prevents his recovery.
The amount of work that is spent on wrong purposes or goals would light up the world for a thousand years.
”Wrong source” is the
other side of the coin of wrong target, meaning it’s the place, person or thing from which something comes or starts from as opposed to a target.
For example, information taken from a wrong source, orders taken from the wrong source, gifts or materiel (supplies) taken from wrong source all result in eventual confusion and possible trouble.
When you don’t realize that you are getting something from a wrong source it can become very embarrassing or confusing. In fact, it’s a favorite trick of intelligence people. For example, the
Department of Disinformation in East Germany had very complicated methods of secretly placing false information and hiding the source from where it came.
In a lesser level, taking a report from someone who you know is a bad hat (evil or worthless person) and using his information to take action, is the usual reason for mistakes made in management.
When two statements are made on one subject that are contrary (opposite) to each other, we have ”contrary facts.”
This illogic could also be called a falsehood, since one of the statements must be false.
But when doing an investigation you cannot say which is the false fact without giving some study and thought on the matter. Based on that it becomes a special outpoint.
For example, the statement that “The company made an above average income that week” and “They couldn’t pay the employees” being said around the same time gives us one or both statements as false. We may not know which is true but we do know that they are contrary and can label them that way.
When questioning someone, this point is so important that anyone giving two contrary facts becomes the main suspect believed to be the one at fault and necessary to question some more. For example, someone saying ”I am a Swiss citizen” but who has a German passport found in his baggage would be suspected of lying.
When two ”facts” are contrary or contradictory (opposing each other), we might not know which is true but we do know that they both can’t be true.
When something is issued by the same organization, even from two different people in that organization, the two contradictory ”facts” are an outpoint.
This outpoint is the opposite of dropped time. In the outpoint of added time we have, as the most common example, something taking longer than it should. This is also a version of conflicting data. For example, let’s say that something should only take three weeks to do but it is reported as taking six months. But added time must be recognized as its own outpoint because people are usually ”reasonable,” meaning they think up excuses to make sense out of something and do not see that it
is an outpoint in itself.
In the worst case, added time becomes a very serious outpoint.
For example, a person says that two or more things happened at the same moment that involved the same person, who could not have experienced
both events. In this case time had to be added to the physical universe to make the information true. Meaning, the person says, ”I left for Saigon at midnight on April 21, 2017, by ship from San Francisco.” And then says ”I took over my duties at Saigon on April 30, 2017.” Here we have to add time to the physical universe in order for both events to have happened since a ship would take two or three weeks to get from San Francisco to Saigon.
Added Inapplicable Data
Just because there is added data (information) reported by someone does not necessarily mean it is an outpoint. It might just be someone trying to be thorough. But when the data is not necessary to the current scene or situation and is added, it is a definite outpoint.
Many times added data is offered by someone to cover up their neglect of their work or cover up a real situation. It certainly means that the person is trying to hide something.
Usually added data also has other outpoints like wrong target or added time.
When you use this outpoint be very sure you also understand the word
inapplicable, which means something that is not able to be used or applied to a practical situation. And also see that it is only an outpoint if the data itself does not apply to the subject you are confronting.
Incorrectly Included Datum
There is another outpoint called
incorrectly included datum, which is a companion (something that exists together with something else) to the omitted datum as an outpoint.
Usually, this happens when the person doesn’t understand the scene itself, because he has no idea of it in his mind and the first thing he needs to classify the data is not there.
For example, take a person in charge of a camera storage area that has no idea of the
types of cameras. Instead of grouping all the needful parts for a certain camera in one box, he gets the lens hoods (an attachment that fits over the lens of a camera to keep out direct sunlight) of all cameras mixed up into one box marked ”lens hoods.” When someone else needs to assemble or use the camera he spends hours trying to find its parts in boxes neatly labeled ”camera backs,” ”lenses,” ”tripods” (a three-legged support stand for a camera), etc.
In this case, when a person is missing the scene of what a camera looks like or how it works when it is set up, he thinks things are identical when they aren’t. Lens hoods are lens hoods. Tripods are tripods. And so a wrong system is worked out to classify the parts because he doesn’t know what the scene should be.
Another example is a traveler who is not able to tell one uniform worn by a man from another, so he ”solves” it by classifying all uniforms as ”porters” (a man whose job is to carry luggage for travelers at a hotel). And so he hands his bag to a police captain and that’s why he spent his vacation in jail.
When you lack an understanding of the scene, it will bring about a situation where you will think something is the same as something else.
For example, a new army
lieutenant passes right on by an enemy spy dressed as one of his own soldiers. However, an experienced sergeant who is right behind the lieutenant sees an outpoint and immediately arrests the spy, because the spy wasn’t wearing his uniform the same way everyone else in the army does.
Times will change data classification.
For example, in 1920 anyone with a camera near a seaport was thought to be a spy. In 1960 anyone not carrying a camera couldn’t be a tourist, so he was watched!
So the scene for one time period in society is not the scene for another.
There are three other types of outpoints which should be known for use in an investigation. These are as follows:
Assumed ”Identities” Are Not Identical
Assumed ”Similarities” Are Not Similar or Same Class of Thing
Assumed ”Differences” Are Not Different
There are hundreds of ways these mishandlings of data can give you a completely false picture.
When you base your actions or orders on data that contains one of the above outpoints, you will make a mistake.
REASON DEPENDS ON DATA.
WHEN DATA IS
FAULTY (as above) THE ANSWER WILL BE WRONG AND LOOKED UPON AS UNREASONABLE.
There are a large number of combinations of these data. There can be more than one or all of the outpoints might be in the same report you receive.
A person’s observation and his communication about what he observed may also contain one of these illogics.
If so, then any effort you make to handle the situation will not be effective in correcting or handling it.
If any body of information is given the above tests, it makes you aware of the potential to act illogically.
To achieve a logical answer one must have logical data.
In other words, any body of data that contains one or more of the above faults can lead one into illogical conclusions.
The reason you may give or receive an unreasonable or unworkable order is because a report contained one or more of the above faults and so the wrong conclusion was reached, which is now being acted upon.
There are one or more conditions that exist when a situation or circumstance is logical. These are called pluspoints. A
pluspoint is a datum of truth found to be true when compared to the following list of logical conditions.
Pluspoints show where
logic exists and where things are going right or where they are likely to go right.
Where things get better or there is a sudden improvement in an area or organization, the cause for this should be found to strengthen what was successful. To do this type of investigation, you use pluspoints.
These are the pluspoints:
RELATED FACTS KNOWN. (All relevant facts known.)
EVENTS IN CORRECT SEQUENCE. (Events in actual sequence.)
TIME NOTED. (Time is properly noted.)
DATA PROVEN FACTUAL. (Data must be factual, meaning it must be true and valid.)
CORRECT RELATIVE IMPORTANCE. (The important and unimportant are correctly sorted out.)
EXPECTED TIME PERIOD. (Events happening or done in the time one would reasonably expect them to be.)
ADEQUATE DATA. (No parts of omitted data that would influence the situation.)
APPLICABLE DATA. (The data presented or available applies to the current matter and not something else.)
CORRECT SOURCE. (Not wrong source.)
CORRECT TARGET. (Not going in some direction that would be wrong for the situation.)
DATA IN SAME CLASSIFICATION. (Data from two or more different classes of material are not introduced as the same class.)
IDENTITIES ARE IDENTICAL. (Not similar or different.)
SIMILARITIES ARE SIMILAR. (Not identical or different.)
DIFFERENCES ARE DIFFERENT. (Not made to be identical or similar.)
When you find out why things got better so that you can make sure the same things are done again, it is very important that you use the actual pluspoints by name as above.
After all, pluspoints are what make things go right.
You can always know something about anything.
It is a wise man who, when confronted with data that is conflicting, realizes that he knows at least one thing—that he doesn’t know.
Understanding that, he can then take action to find out.
If he evaluates the data he does find out against the things above, he can clarify the situation. Then he can reach a logical conclusion.
The same applies for you. By using this information, you can make things go right.
It is necessary to work out your own examples of the violations of logic described in this course.
By doing so, you will have gained skill in sorting out the data of a situation.
When you can sort out data and become skilled in it, you will become very difficult to fool and you will have taken the first vital step in
grasping a correct estimate of any situation.
NOTE: In order to continue, you must complete all previous steps in this course.
Your last incomplete step is
NOTE: You had several answers that were incorrect. In order to continue, you should re-read the article
and then test your understanding again.