Note: These final exercises are optional. You do not have
to do them. They are included here for you to do to help you get an increased understanding and ability to apply the materials of the course.
Gather some newspapers and magazines and go through them, looking for examples of justifications—specifically those where you see there have been efforts by someone “to reduce the goodness or importance of the persons or things some harmful act was done against” or “random criticism, not supported by fact” (an effort to reduce the size of the target of the overt, criticizing someone unjustly to lower his repute). Continue doing this until you can easily spot such examples.